日本学士院

会員情報

 

氏名

苧阪直行(おさか なおゆき)

苧阪直行(おさか なおゆき)

 

所属部・分科

第1部第1分科

選定年月日

平成24年12月12日

専攻学科目

認知心理学・認知科学

現職等

京都大学名誉教授

受賞等

〔国内〕
日本人間工学会 橋本賞(昭和61年)
日本心理学会 優秀論文賞(平成12年)
日本心理学会 国際賞(平成27年)
日本ワーキングメモリ学会賞(平成28年)
日本色彩学会賞(平成30年)
瑞宝重光章(令和2年)

〔海外〕

外国アカデミー会員等

 

主要な学術上の業績

 苧阪直行氏は、“脳のメモ帳”の役割を演じる「ワーキングメモリ」を「目標志向的な課題や作業の遂行に関わるアクティブな一時的記憶」ととらえ、その容量を測定する心理実験の結果と機能的磁気共鳴画像法など脳の活動部位との関係から、「ワーキングメモリ」における個人差の解明と、「ワーキングメモリ」が前頭前野と前部帯状回皮質などのネットワーク結合を背景に、注意を制御するメカニズムについて知見を得ています。
 苧阪氏は、ワーキングメモリを含む行動指標と脳イメージングの関係から意識の三層モデルを提案し、最上層に「意識はそれ自身を意識する」とする再帰的意識を置き、前頭葉皮質に形成されると考えます。意識と注意という経験的に取り扱い難い対象を「ワーキングメモリ」の枠内で、行動的指標と認知脳科学的手法を駆使して、認知科学的に解明するアプローチを示したものとして高く評価されます。

主要な著書・論文

著書

  1. 周辺視機能の精神物理学的機能 風間書房(1983年)
  2. 注意と意識の心理学 岩波講座・認知科学 第9巻「注意と意識」岩波書店(共著,1994年)
  3. 意識とは何か 岩波書店(1996年)
  4. 脳と意識 朝倉書店(編著,1997年)
  5. 心と脳の科学 岩波書店(1998年)
  6. 読み —脳と心の情報処理— 朝倉書店(編著,1998年)
  7. 感性のことばを研究する 新曜社(編著,1999年)
  8. 注意と意識 岩波講座・現代医学の基礎 第7巻「脳・神経の科学II—脳の高次機能」 岩波書店(共著,1999年)
  9. 脳とワーキングメモリ 京都大学学術出版会(編著,2000年)
  10. 美を脳から考える —芸術への生物学的探検 新曜社(監訳,2000年)
  11. 実験心理学の誕生と展開 京都大学学術出版会(編著,2000年)
  12. 意識の認知科学 —心の神経基盤— 共立出版 (編著,2000年)
  13. 意識はどのように生まれるのか 「脳図鑑21」 工作舎 (共著,2001年)
  14. 意識の科学は可能か 新曜社(編著,2002年)
  15. 意識 「脳神経科学」 (伊藤正男監修) 三輪書店 (共著,2003年)
  16. 脳の謎に挑む 「意識とワーキングメモリ」 別冊数理科学(SGライブラリ)(共著,2003年)
  17. Neural basis of consciousness, Amsterdam: John Benjamin (編著, 2003)
  18. Osaka, N., 2006, Human anterior cingulate cortex and affective pain induced by mimic words: An fMRI study, In M.Mancia (Ed.), Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience, 257-268, Milano: Springer Italia.
  19. Object Recognition, Attention & Action, Springer Verlag (編著, 2007)
  20. Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory, Oxford University Press (編著, 2007)
  21. 意識の脳内表現 —意識の脳内表現:心理学と哲学からのアプローチ— 培風館 (監訳,2008年)
  22. ワーキングメモリの脳内表現 京都大学学術出版会 (編著,2008年)
  23. 脳イメージング —ワーキングメモリーと視覚的注意からみた脳— 培風館 (編著,2010年)
  24. 笑い脳 —社会脳からのアプローチ— 岩波書店(2010年)
  25. 社会脳科学の展望—脳から社会をみる— (社会脳シリーズ第1巻) 新曜社 (編著, 2012年)
  26. 道徳の神経哲学—神経倫理から見た社会意識の形成— (社会脳シリーズ第2巻) 新曜社 (編著, 2012年)
  27. 注意をコントロールする脳—神経注意学からみた情報の選択と統合— (社会脳シリーズ第3巻) 新曜社 (編著, 2013年)
  28. 美しさと共感を生む脳—神経美学からみた芸術— (社会脳シリーズ第4巻) 新曜社 (編著, 2013年)
  29. 報酬を期待する脳—ニューロエコノミクスの新展開— (社会脳シリーズ第5巻) 新曜社 (編著, 2014年)
  30. 自己を知る脳・他者を理解する脳—神経認知心理学からみた心の理論の新展開— (社会脳シリーズ第6巻) 新曜社 (編著, 2014年)
  31. 小説を愉しむ脳—神経文学という新たな領域— (社会脳シリーズ第7巻) 新曜社 (編著, 2014年)
  32. 成長し衰退する脳—神経発達学と神経加齢学— (社会脳シリーズ第8巻) 新曜社 (編著, 2015年)
  33. ロボットと共生する社会脳—神経社会ロボット学— (社会脳シリーズ第9巻) 新曜社 (編著, 2015年)
  34. 社会脳ネットワーク入門—認知脳(ワーキングメモリ)と社会脳(デフォールトモード)ネットワークの協調と競合 新曜社 (共著, 2018年)
  35. 苧阪直行他著(2020)社会脳から心を探る—自己と他者をつなぐ社会適応の脳内メカニズム—、日本学術会議叢書26、日本学術会議協力財団
  36. Cultural neuroaesthetics of delicate sadness induced by Noh mask. In Chatterjee, A.,& Cardillo, E. (eds.) Neuroaesthetics in Focus, Oxford University Press (共著, 2021年).

(他16点)

論文

  1. Perceived brightness as a function of flash duration in the peripheral visual field. Perception and Psychophysics, 22, 63-69 (1977).
  2. Effect of refraction on perceived locus of a target in the peripheral visual field. Journal of Psychology, 95, 59-62 (1977).
  3. Naso-temporal differences in human reaction time in the peripheral visual field. Neuropsychologia, 16, 299-303 (1978).
  4. VEP latency and RT as power functions of luminance in the peripheral visual field. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 44, 785-788 (1978).
  5. Long-term drifts in individual observers' unique-hue spectral loci. Japanese Psychological Research, 20, 183-186 (1978).
  6.  周辺視における明るさのベキ関数とEqual Brightness Contour. 心理学研究, 50, 1-8 (1978).
  7. Brightness exponent as a function of retinal eccentricity in the peripheral visual field: Effects of dark and light adaptation. Perception and Psychophysics, 27, 519-523 (1980).
  8. Effect of peripheral visual field size upon visual search in children and adults. Perception, 9, 451-455 (1980).
  9. Brightness exponent as a function of flash duration and retinal eccentricity. Perception and Psychophysics, 30, 144-148 (1981).
  10. duration necessary for integration of briefly presented letters. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 18, 309-310 (1981).
  11. Exponent of the Broca-Sulzer flash duration as a function of retinal eccentricity. Journal of the Optical Society of America., 72, 62-67 (1982).
  12. Exponent of the latency and brightness power functions in the fovea and periphery of the visual field. Journal of General Psychology, 106, 195-203 (1982).
  13.  Broca-Sulzer visual evoked potentials: Brightness- and darknes-versions. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 1, 1260 (1984).
  14. The effect of VDU colour on visual fatigue in the fovea and periphery of the visual field. Displays: Technology & Applications, 6, 138-140 (London) (1985).
  15. Cross-cultural differences in the perception of facial expressions of ambiguous Noh faces. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 24, 427-430 (1986).
  16. Memory psychophysics for pyridine smell scale. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 25, 56-57 (1987).
  17. Variation of saccadic suppression with eccentricity of target. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 7, 499-501 (1987).
  18. Psicofisica mental para la longitud percibida, el area y los mapas geograficos: una aproximacion psicofisica a la representacion de la memoria visual. / Mental psychophysics for perception of longitude, geographical areas and maps: A psychophysical approximation to the visual memory representation. Revista-Latinoamericana-de-Psicologia, 19, 337-352 (1987).
  19. Eye fixation and saccade during kana and kanji text reading: Comparison of English and Japanese text processing. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 27, 548-550 (1989).
  20. Peripheral lower visual field: A neglected factor? Behavioral Brain Sciences, 13, 555 (1990).
  21. Multidimensional analysis of onomatopoeia. Studia Phonologica, 24, 25-33 (1990).
  22. Size of saccade and fixation duration of eye movements during reading: Psychophysics of Japanese text processing. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 9, 5-13 (1992).
  23. Size of saccade and fixation duration of eye movements during reading: Psychophysics of Japanese text processing. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 9, 5-13 (1992).
  24. Language-independent working memory as measured by Japanese and English reading span tests. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 30, 287-289 (1992).
  25. Language-independent working memory: Evidence from German and French reading span tests. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31, 117-118 (1993).
  26. Moving window generator for reading experiments. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 26, 49-53 (1994).
  27. Difference of spatial frequency selectivity between static and flicker motion aftereffects. Perception, 23, 1313-1320 (1994).
  28. Motion aftereffect with flickering test stimuli depends on adapting velocity. Vision Research, 35, 1825-1833 (1995).
  29. Re-evaluation of local adaptation for motion aftereffect. Perception, 25, 1065-1072 (1996).
  30. In the theatre of working memory of the brain. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 4, 332-334 (1997).
  31.  視覚におけるNCC (Neural Correlates of Consciousness) 問題—ニューロイメージング (SQUID)による探求—. 認知科学, 4, 93-98 (1997).
  32. 脳と意識. 物性研究(複雑系5), 68, 559-570 (1997).
  33. Neural correlates of motion aftereffect using evoked magnetic fields. In I. Hashimoto & R. Kakigi (Eds.), Recent advances in human neurophysiology (pp. 445-449): Elsevier (1998).
  34. リカーシブな意識とワーキングメモリ. 心理学評論, 41, 87-95 (1998).
  35. Individual differences in working memory and the peak frequency shift on magnetoencephalography. Cognitive Brain Research, 8, 365-368 (1999).
  36. Optimal viewing position in vertical and horizontal reading in Japanese. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 1634-1644 (2000).
  37. Optimal viewing position in vertical and horizontal reading in Japanese. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 1634-1644 (2000)
  38. Asymmetry of human visual field in magnetic response to apparent motion. Brain Research, 865, 221-226 (2000).
  39. Cortical activity related to cue-invariant shape perception in humans. Neuroscience, 98, 615-624 (2000).
  40. Asymmetry of human visual field in magnetic response to apparent motion. Brain Research, 865, 221-226 (2000)
  41. Neural correlates of visual working memory for motion. In K. Yasue, M. Jibu & T. Della Senta (Eds.), No matter never mind: Proceedings; Toward a Science of Consciousness - Fundamental Approaches? (Tokyo '99) (pp. 127-136). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing (2001).
  42. ことばと感覚—擬音語・擬態語からみるクオリアの探求—. 言語, 30, 70-77 (2001).
  43. The effect of focusing on sentence in Japanese RST. In A. Friederic & T. Lachmann (Eds.), Basic mechanisms of language and language disorders.(2001).
  44. Eye movement control in reading unspaced text: The case of the Japanese script. Vision Research, 41, 2503-2510 (2001).
  45. Perception of relation of stimuli locations successively flashed before saccade. Vision Research, 41, 935-942 (2001).
  46. Inefficient visual search for 2-nd order motion. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 18, 2255-2266 (2001).
  47. Effect of verbal working memory: Critical role of focus word in reading. Memory & Cognition, 30, 562-571 (2002).
  48. Effect of inter-stimulus interval on perceived location of successively flashed perisaccadic stimuli. Vision Research, 42, 899-908 (2002).
  49. Individual differences in working memory during reading with and without parafoveal information: American Journal of Psychology, 115, 501-513 (2002).
  50. 読解力とワーキングメモリ—構造方程式モデリングからのアプローチ—. 心理学研究, 73, 480-487 (2002).
  51. Capacity of short term implicit memory is larger than visuospatial working memory in visual search. Journal of Vision, 2, 292 (2002).
  52. The neural basis of individual differences in working memory capacity: an fMRI study. Neuroimage, 18, 789-797(2003)
  53. An emotion-based facial expression word activates laughter module in the human brain: An fMRI study. Neuroscience Letters, 340, 127-130 (2003).
  54. Working memory-based consciousness: An individual difference approach. In N.Osaka (ed.) Neural Basis of Consciousness. Amsterdam: John Benjamin, Pp.27-44 (2003).
  55. How does the attentional pointer work in prefrontal cortex? Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 26, 751 (2003).
  56. On the perceptual and neural correlates of reading models. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 26, 495 (2003).
  57. Cooperation of the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for attention shifting. Neuroimage, 23, 670-679 (2004).
  58. The neural basis of executive function in working memory: an fMRI study based on individual differences. Neuroimage, 21, 623-631 (2004).
  59. Functional roles of cingulo-frontal network in performance on working memory. Neuroimage, 21, 2-14 (2004).
  60. Susceptibility of spatial and verbal working memory to demands of central executive. Japanese Psychological Research, 46, 86-97 (2004).
  61. A Word expressing affective pain activates the anterior cingulate cortex in the human brain: an fMRI study. Behavioral Brain Research, 153, 123-127 (2004).
  62.  デカルト的意識の脳内表現—心の理論からのアプローチ—. 哲学研究, 758, 103-120 (2004).
  63. The world as an inside working memory. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 27, 905-906 (2004).
  64. Functional roles of cingulo-frontal network in performance on working memory. Neuroimage, 21, 2-14 (2004).
  65. Kanizsa figure does not defend against saccadic compression of visual space. Vision Research, 45, 301-309 (2005).
  66. ワーキングメモリと前頭葉機能—実行系機能の個人差—. 認知神経科学, 7, 250-255 (2005).
  67. Striatal reward areas activated by implicit laughter induced by mimic words in human: An fMRI study. Neuroreport, 16, 1621-1624 (2005).
  68. 擬態語により創発される情動空間の脳内表現—fMRIによる笑いと痛みのクオリアの検討—. 生理心理学と精神生理学, 23, 5-10 (2005).
  69. 言語性ワーキングメモリのfMRIによる検討—加齢が前部帯状回(ACC)—前頭前野(PFC)ネットワークに及ぼす影響—. 生理心理学と精神生理学, 23, 11-18 (2005).
  70. Involvement of V5/MT+ in object substitution masking: Evidence from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuroreport, 16, 491-494 (2005).
  71. Decreased activation of anterior cingulate cortex in the working memory of elderly. Neuroreport, 17, 1479-1482 (2006).
  72. 意識と前頭葉 —研究の動向と展開— 心理学研究, 77, 553-566(2006).
  73. 高齢者のワーキングメモリ—前頭葉仮説の検討—. 心理学評論, 48, 518-529 (2006).
  74. リカーシブな意識の脳内表現—ワーキングメモリと通して自己と他者を知る—. 科学, 76, 280-283 (2006).
  75. Human anterior cingulate cortex and affective pain induced by mimic words: An FMRI study. In M. Mancia (Ed.), Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience (pp. 257-268). Milano: Springer (2006).
  76. 「心の理論」の脳内表現—ワーキングメモリからのアプローチ—. 心理学評論, 49, 358-374 (2006).
  77. 視覚的注意のトップダウン制御の脳内表現. 心理学評論, 49, 321-340 (2006).
  78. Neural basis of focusing attention in working memory. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 130-139 (2007).
  79. Recovery from object substitution masking induced by transient suppression of visual motion processing: A repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33, 1495-1503 (2007).
  80. Corteccia del cingolo anteriore umana e dolore affecttivo indotto da parole mimiche: uno studio con immagini da risonanza magnetica funzionale. In M. Mancia (Ed.), Psicoanalisi e Neuroscienze (pp. 273-284). Milano: Springer (2007).
  81. Neural bases of focusing attention in working memory: An fMRI study based on individual differences. In N. Osaka, R. Logie & M. D'Esposito (Eds.), Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory (pp. 99-117). Oxford: Oxford University Press (2007).
  82. オノマトペの脳科学. 日本語学, 26, 16-23 (2007).
  83. Distortion of apparent shape of an object immediately before saccade. Spatial Vision, 20, 265-276 (2007).
  84. How are colors memorized in working memory? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. NeuroReport, 18, 111-114 (2007).
  85. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex disrupts verbal working memory performance in human. Neuroscience Letters, 418, 232-235 (2007).
  86. The role of left and right intraparietal sulcus in the attentional blink:Transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Experimental Brain Research, 178, 135-140 (2007).
  87. Interaction between shape perception and egocentric localization. In N. Osaka, I. Rentschler & I. Biederman (Eds.), Object Recognition, Attention and Action. Tokyo: Springer Japan (2007).
  88. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of human MT+ reduces apparent motion perception. Neuroscience Letters, 429, 131-135 (2007).
  89. メタ認知と前頭葉—ワーキングメモリの認知神経科学からのアプローチ—. 心理学評論, 50, 216-226. (2007)
  90. Role of anterior cingulate cortex during semantic coding in verbal working memory. Neuroscience Letters, 436, 57-61 (2008).
  91. 視覚的美しさの評価の神経基盤—神経美学的アプローチ—. 心理学評論, 51, 318-329 (2008).
  92. オブジェクト置き換えマスキングの脳内機構. 心理学評論, 51, 301-317 (2008).
  93. Functional asymmetry of superior parietal lobule for working memory in elderly. NeuroReport, 19, 1355-1359 (2008).
  94. 感性の認知脳科学. 国文学, 50-57 (2008).
  95. Connectivity and signal intensity in the parieto-occipital cortex predicts top-down attentional effect in visual masking: an fMRI study based on individual differences. Neuroimage, 45, 587-597 (2009).
  96. Walk related mimic word activates the extra-striate visual cortex in the human brain: An fMRI study. Behavioral Brain Research, 198, 186-189 (2009).
  97. Object substitution masking induced by illusory masks: Evidence for higher object-level locus of interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 931-938 (2009).
  98. 意識と注意のトップダウン制御. 分子精神医学, 9, 123-130 (2009).
  99. メタ記憶とワーキングメモリの脳内表現—社会脳をめぐる自己知(TOMS)と他者知(TOMO)の問題—. メタ記憶 北大路書房 pp. 105-118 (2009).
  100. Picture span test: Measuring visual working memory capacity involved in remembering and comprehension. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 309-317 (2009).
  101. Individual differences in the theory of mind and superior temporal sulcus. Neuroscience Letters, 463, 150-153 (2009).
  102. Gaze-related mimic word activates the frontal eye field and related network in the human brain: an fMRI study. Neuroscience Letters, 461, 65-68 (2009).
  103. Is the self special in DMPFC? An fMRI study. Social Neuroscince, 4, 455-463 (2009).
  104. Individual differences in working memory capacity and distractor processing: Possible contribution of top-down inhibitory control. Brain Research, 1335, 63-73 (2010).
  105. Asymmetry in object substitution masking occurs relative to the direction of spatial attention shift. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.36, 25-37 (2010).
  106. Implied motion because of instability in Hokusai Manga activates the human motion-sensitive extrastriate visual cortex: an fMRI study of the impact of visual art. Neuroreport, 21, 264-267 (2010).
  107. 感性言語—擬音語・擬態語と脳—. 三浦佳世(編) 現代の認知心理学第1巻「知覚と感性」 北大路書房, pp.156-184 (2010).
  108. Direction anisotropy of human motion perception depends on stimulus speed. Vision Research, 50, 1862-1866 (2010).
  109. Task irrelevant memory load induces inattentional blindness without temporo-parietal suppression. Neuropsychologia, 48,,3094-3101 (2010).
  110. Ideomotor account for neural representation of implied cry in the human brain-An fMRI study using onomatopoeia. Japanese Psychological Research, 153, 372-378 (2011).
  111. Differential contributions of intraparietal sulcus and inferior parietal lobe to the attentional blink: Evidence from transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 247-256. (2011).
  112. Anterior MPFC exhibits activation during preparation but deactivation during task execution. PLoS  ONE, 6, 8, (2011)(e22909 82011).
  113. Dissociable neural activations of conscious visibility and attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 469-506 (2011).
  114. Primary visual cortex scales individual's perceived brightness with power function: Inner psychophysics with fMRI. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 38, 1341-1347 (2012).
  115. Incidental encoding of goal-irrelevant information is associated with insufficient engagement of the dorsal frontal cortex and the inferior parietal cortex. Brain Research, 1429, 82-97 (2012).
  116. Neural correlates of delicate sadness: An fMRI study based on the neuroaesthetics of Noh-masks. Neuroreport, 23, 26-29 (2012).
  117. Verbal to visual code switching improves working memory in the elderly: An fMRI study. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience, 6:24 (2012).
  118. Practice on conflict tasks promotes executive function of working memory in the elderly. Behavioural Brain Research, 233, 90-98 (2012).
  119. Differential roles for parietal and occipital cortices in visual working memory. PLoS ONE, 7(6), e38623 (2012).
  120. Effect of intentional bias on agency attribution of animated motion: An event-related fMRI study. PLoS ONE, 7(11), e49053 (2012). (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049053).
  121. Effect of intentional bias on agency attribution of animated motion: An event-related fMRI study. PLoS ONE, 7(11), e49053 (2012).
  122. Medial prefrontal cortex dissociation between self and others in a referential task: An fMRI study based on word traits. Journal of Physiology (Paris), 107, 517-525 (2013). (doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphysparis.2013.09.002)
  123. When do negative and positive emotions modulate working memory performance? Scientific Reports, 3, 1375 (2013).
  124. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic strips: an fMRI study. Scientific Reports, 4, 5828 (2014). (doi:10.1038/srep05828).
  125. Co-activation of the default mode network regions and working memory network regions during task preparation. An event-related fMRI study. Scientific Report, 4, 1036 (2014).
  126. The anodal tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex enhances attention toward a focus word in a sentence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 992 (2014) (doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00992)
  127. Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 384 (2014)(doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00384).
  128. Raise two effects with one scene: Scene contexts have two separate effects in visual working memory of target faces. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 400 (2014) (doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00400).
  129. Extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals activate different parts of the prefrontal cortex under an ego-blocking frustration. PLoS ONE, 9, e86036 (2014). (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.008603).
  130. Effect of memory load on eye movement control: A study using the reading span test. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 7(5):3, 1-9 (2014) (doi: 10.16910/jemr.7.5.3).
  131. Color harmony represented by activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience, 9, 381 (2015). (doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00382)
  132. Rostal prefrontal cortex underlies individual differences in working memory capacity. Cortex, 71, 277-290 (2015).
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他は以下を参照してください。

https://ha2.seikyou.ne.jp/home/Naoyuki.Osaka/

https://researchmap.jp/read0013199 (researchmap 苧阪直行)

リンク

https://ha2.seikyou.ne.jp/home/Naoyuki.Osaka/