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Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Ser. B, Physical and Biological Sciences

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The Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B was founded in 1912 as the Proceedings of the Imperial Academy by the then Imperial Academy of Japan (now the Japan Academy). The Journal was split to the Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series A and Series B in 1977. PJA Series B publishes reviews and original articles in broad fields of natural sciences, such as chemistry, physics, astronomy, earth sciences, biology, engineering, agricultural sciences and medical sciences. All manuscripts are evaluated at least by two reviewers. Ten issues are published per year. The entire content is now freely available online through J-STAGE.

Vol. 92 No. 9 (2016)


Reviews
Chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements
Masamitsu WADA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 387-411 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
RNA-based gene circuits for cell regulation
Peter KARAGIANNIS, Yoshihiko FUJITA and Hirohide SAITO
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 412-422 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
Maintenance of gut homeostasis by the mucosal immune system
Ryu OKUMURA and Kiyoshi TAKEDA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 423-435 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
Original Articles
CXCL12 protects pancreatic β-cells from oxidative stress by a Nrf2-induced increase in catalase expression and activity
Svetlana DINIĆ, Nevena GRDOVIĆ, Aleksandra USKOKOVIĆ, Miloš ÐORÐEVIĆ, Mirjana MIHAILOVIĆ, Jelena Arambašić JOVANOVIĆ, Goran POZNANOVIĆ and Melita VIDAKOVIĆ
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 436-454 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
Silent evolution
Syozo OSAWA, Zhi-Hui SU, Masaaki NISHIKAWA and Osamu TOMINAGA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 455-461 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
Cover Illustration
Silent Evolution
   It has been commonly believed that evolutional processes can be divided to (1) apparently slow (or gradual) changes in morphology so long as an environmental conditions are kept under nearly steady state, and (2) rapid morphological changes upon drastic environmental switchovers.
  Osawa et al. (pp. 455-461 in this issue) used phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of several ground beetles and a burying beetle, and came to the conclusion that stagnation and gradual (slow) changes should better be distinguished from each other. They propose a new category called “silent evolution” for morphological stagnation of the evolutionary process. Silent evolution may be best explained by the mitochondrial phylogenetic tree of a carabid species Damaster blaptoides blaptides . Morphological differences among southwest populations of this species, i.e., Kii Peninsula, Chugoku-Shikoku and Kyushu cannot be recognized following the available procedures, and therefore these three populations have been treated as the same one subspecies. However, a phylogenetic tree clearly shows the locality-dependent three lineages. Presumably, neutral base changes have occurred at independent sites in each lineage without accompanying mutations on the nuclear genes which correspond to morphogenesis. This process remained unchanged at least for the past 12 million years.

Kazuo Kawano
Emeritus, International Center for Tropical Agriculture

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