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Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Ser. B, Physical and Biological Sciences

Vol. 92 No. 8 (2016)

  Vol. 92 No. 8 (2016)
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Reviews
Theoretical approaches for the dynamics of complex biological systems from information of networks
Atsushi MOCHIZUKI
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 255-264 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
Radiography with cosmic-ray and compact accelerator muons; Exploring inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms
Kanetada NAGAMINE
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 265-289 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
Total synthesis and related studies of large, strained, and bioactive natural products
Masahiro HIRAMA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 290-329 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
Original Articles
Enhanced diffraction properties of photoinduced gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with Disperse Red 1
Hongjing LI, Jianhao WANG, Changshun WANG, Pengfei ZENG, Yujia PAN and Yifei YANG
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 330-335 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
Toward the detection of gravitational waves under non-Gaussian noises II. Independent component analysis
Soichiro MORISAKI, Jun’ichi YOKOYAMA, Kazunari EDA and Yousuke ITOH
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 336-345 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
Dynamics of memory-guided choice behavior in Drosophila
Toshiharu ICHINOSE and Hiromu TANIMOTO
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 346-357 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence
Aitaro KATO, Kouji NAKAMURA and Yohei HIYAMA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 358-371 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
General strategy for understanding intracellular molecular interaction cascades that elicit stimulus-invoked biological processes
Hiroto OKAYAMA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 92, 372-385 (2016) [Abstract and Full Text]
Cover Illustration
Surface deformations and faulting styles during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence
   Beginning in April 2016, a series of shallow large earthquakes struck the Kumamoto area of Kyushu, southwest Japan, killing 64 people and destroying more than 37,000 houses completely or partially. The keyword of the Kumamoto earthquake is the sequential occurrence of multiple earthquake. The sequence was also a series of surprise. It started with the magnitude 6.5 earthquake, accompanied by numerous aftershocks more often than usual. It was only 28 hours later that the area was again hit by an even bigger earthquake of magnitude 7.3. These two were among the four earthquakes (in Japan since 1996) which recoded instrumentally the highest level of ground shaking with seismic intensity 7. The subsequent seismic activity was not confined in the epicentral regions of these two shocks but expanded far away from them mainly in the northeast direction. The significant aftershock activity is still continuing at the time of writing this cover commentary (September, 2016).
  Kato et al. (this issue, pp. 358-371) summarizes the intense seismicity related to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence based on the spatio-temporal evolution of earthquakes and crustal surface deformation, recorded by a dense nationwide network of seismic and geodetic sensors. High-resolution image of the rupture process of the Kumamoto earthquake clearly shows that multi fault segments were sequentially ruptured along known active faults in the central Kyushu. An interplay between different fault segments resulted to the complicated evolution of the earthquake ruptures and the intense seismicity. Earthquake-associated stress changes and stress interactions between multi scale fault structures make it difficult to predict accurately what will happen next in the ongoing earthquake sequence. Each earthquake has a non-zero probability of being followed by a larger one. It is thus of crucial importance to deepen our fundamental understanding of basic physics behind the complex earthquake activity.

Yoshio Fukao
Member of the Japan Academy

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