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Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Ser. B, Physical and Biological Sciences

Vol. 86 No. 4 (2010)

  Vol. 86 No. 4 (2010)
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Reviews
Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence
Jaw-Shen TSAI
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 275-292 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
My 50 years of research in particle physics
Hirotaka SUGAWARA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 293-302 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations
Takaaki KAJITA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 303-321 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Key structures of bacterial peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide triggering the innate immune system of higher animals: Chemical synthesis and functional studies
Shoichi KUSUMOTO, Koichi FUKASE and Tetsuo SHIBA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 322-337 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Lipase-catalyzed polyester synthesis — A green polymer chemistry
Shiro KOBAYASHI
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 338-365 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Clinical studies on rising and re-rising neurological diseases in Japan —A personal contribution—
Akihiro IGATA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 366-377 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Pyridylamination as a means of analyzing complex sugar chains
Sumihiro HASE
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 378-390 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Coordinated regulation of circadian rhythms and homeostasis by the suprachiasmatic nucleus
Hachiro NAKAGAWA and Nobuaki OKUMURA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 391-409 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Midkine, a heparin-binding cytokine with multiple roles in development, repair and diseases
Takashi MURAMATSU
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 410-425 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Intracellular trafficking of ceramide by ceramide transfer protein
Kentaro HANADA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 426-437 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Neural stem cells and strategies for the regeneration of the central nervous system
Hideyuki OKANO
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 438-450 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Original Paper
Esaki diodes live and learn
Leo ESAKI, Masatoshi KITAMURA, Satoshi IWAMOTO and Yasuhiko ARAKAWA
Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Vol. 86, 451-453 (2010) [abstract] [PDF]
Cover Illustration
Cover Illustration: Neutrino oscillation discovered at Super-Kamiokande

 Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos of atmospheric origin are produced from pion decays and subsequent muon decays, which occur when high-energy cosmic-rays enter the atmosphere of Earth at about 15 km from its surface. They are detected in Super-Kamiokande, a 50,000 ton water-Cherenkov neutrino detector located deep underground in Kamioka, Gifu. Neutrino-induced electron and muon events are observed by detecting Cherenkov photons using 11,200 photomultiplier tubes instrumented in all of the inner surfaces of the water tank. The left- and right-top panels show typical hit patterns of an electron event and a muon event induced by the neutrino interactions observed in Super-Kamiokande, respectively. In these views, the cylindrical detector is opened to flat. The colors indicate the timing of photon detection for each photomultiplier tube. Each event pattern determines the species, energy and direction of the neutrino. The three bottom panels show the zenith-angle distributions for multi-GeV muon-neutrinos. From left to right, they show 1994 data from Kamiokande, 1998 and 2009 data from Super-Kamiokande. As the number of events accumulated increases year by year, a greater deviation has been revealed of the observed distribution from the expectation without neutrino oscillation. The black or blue histograms show the expected distributions for non-oscillation cases. The red histograms show the best fit neutrino oscillation. Detailed studies of these neutrinos events led to the discovery of neutrino oscillation, and thus of tiny neutrino masses, as described by T. Kajita in this issue.

Toshimitsu Yamazaki
Member of the Japan Academy
Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo

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